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by the fays the King returned upon his ways,
From the Divyavadana, No. 37. The rendition of the tale that appears below is based on the translation by N. J. Krom that appears in Barabudur: An Archaeological Description.
King Bimbisara justly ruled over the city of Rajagrha during the time that the Buddha dwelt there. In the far-distant city of Roruka, King Rudrayana ruled in a no less beneficent fashion. When merchants from Rajagrha brought their goods to Roruka; the king was eager to hear news of their homeland, about which the merchants had many good things to say about both country and king. This caused King Rudrayana to long for intercourse with King Bimbisara, so he gave them a letter and a chest of jewels to deliver to their king.
The merchants soon returned with a letter from King Bimbisara as well as a chest full of rich garments for Roruka's reigning monarch. It was now Rudrayana's turn to send back a gift and for this prupose he chose his famous cuirass, which not only had miraculous powers but was also ornemented with priceless jewels.
Embarrassed by the magnificence of this present, King Bimbisara sought out the counsel of the Buddha, who advised the king to have the Tathagata's likeness painted onto a cloth and delivered to the ruler of Roruka. At first, the painters were unable to successfully render the Buddha's image succeed onto cloth. So the Buddha cast his own shadow on the cloth, thereby causing his image to be outlined in color. In addition, the remaining white space around the Buddha's image was filled in with suitable words and verses.
Then King Bimbisara wrote a letter telling King Rudrayana that he was now sending him the most precious thing that the world contained, which he must receive with due honor. And so it was done.
Rudrayana escorted the treasure with troops along decorated roads into the city. When the cloth was unrolled, some merchants who happened to be present, shouted "Hail Buddha!" The king at once made inquiries as to who or what Buddha might be, and was told his story.
Rudrayana pondered over the writing on the picture and after meditating further on these principles, finally attained the rank of a srota-apanna. Desiring greatly to obtain the presence of a bhiksu at his court, he and dispatched another letter to Bimbisara. Hering of the correspondance, the Buddha himself selected the venerable Mahakatyayana to appear in King Rudrayana's court, where he was received with great respect.
Mahakatyayana's preaching made numbers of converts among the population. Chief among these were the heads of two families, Tisya and Pusya, who attained the grade of arhat and whose remains after death were honored and preserved in two stupas.
The king's approval of Mahakatyayana's preaching roused in the women's apartment a longing to hear the doctrine. However, the bhiksu Mahakatyayana declared that he was not allowed to enter therein and therefore advised the court to send for a bhiksun1 from Rajagrha.
Thereafter a nun named Qaila arrived in King Rudrayana's court, whose words made a deep impression, especially on queen Candraprabha. When the queen received a warning of her approaching death, she asked and obtained her husband's consent tobecome a nun in hope of reaching the state of an arhat and reincarnation as a goddess.
When this later came to pass, she appeared to the king as goddess and urged him to follow her example so that they could be re-united in heaven. Following her advice, the king resigned the kingdom in favor of his son Qikhandin. He then counseled the new king to govern justly and act on the advice of his wise ministers Hiru and Bhiru. The former king then retired to Rajagrha where he was ordained by the Buddha himself.
When the venerable Rudrayana went begging in the streets of Rajagrha, he encountered King Bimbisara, who could not understand the renouncement of his former colleague and tried through various inducements to persuade him to change his mind and return to the pleasures of life. However, Rudrayana remained firm in his convictions.
Meanwhile things began to go wrong back in Roruka, where King Qikhandin was ruling unjustly and oppressing his subjects. When the two ministers continued to weary the king with their repeated warnings, Qikhandin dismissed them and appointed bad councillors in their place. Merchants related all this to Rudrayana, who thought that it was his duty to return to Roruka and set his son once more on the right path.
His plan became known to his son's new ministers, who, fearing their downfall, wished by all means to prevent Rudrayana's return. After persuading King Qikhandin that his father intended to take the government again into his own hands, they advised the monarch to have the old king put to death. The murderers encountered Rudrayan while the former king was on his way home. Before his executioners were able to strike, Rudrayana gained their permission to withdraw. Seated beneath a tree the former monarch was able to attain the state of an arhat.
With his last words the former king pronounced that his son was doomed to hell for murdering his own father as well as for killing an arhat. After making this observation, the former king willingly allowed himself to be put to death.
Only when the ministers had brought the murderers to him did King Qikhandin realized the heinious crime that he had committed. In despair, he recalled the advise of his former ministers Hiru and Bhiru. In response, the evil councillors endeavoured to convince the king that his remorse was misplaced.
The queen-mother undertook to assist them by telling her son that Rudrayana was not his father. She also attempted to show the king that the status of an arhat was worthless. The queen-mother and the two evil ministers cause a hole to be made under the stupas of Tisya and Pusya. They then induced two young cats to live within, animals that had been trained to appear at a certain sign, take a bit of meat and then circumambulate the stupa before returning to their hole.
The two evil ministers requested that the king accompany them to visit the stupas of Tisya and Pusya. When they arrived, the ministers addressed the king as follows:
"As sure as ye, Tisya and Pusya, have always deceived people and are now changed into cats dwelling in your own stupa, I adjure ye to fetch this bit of meat, to walk the pradaksina round the stupas and then return to your hole."
The cats then performed what had been taught and the king was quite convinced that the arhat-ship was an imposture.
So the king continued in his evil ways, depriving the monks and nuns of nourishment and thereby causing them to desert the city. As he departed the city for the final time, the bikshu Mahakatyayana endeavoured to avoid the king by going another way. On the evil advice of his ministers, the king ordered his followers to throw handfuls of sand onto the monk until the bikshu was buried under a sandheap. Fortunately the king's former ministers Hiru and Bhiru arrived on the scene and, with the help of some cowherds, rescued Mahakatyayana from an untimely death.
The holy man then prophesied the end of the evil king and his city. For six days it would rain precious things, he proclaimed, but on the seventh a storm of sand would annihilate all of Roruka. He then told the two former ministers make ready a ship,and on the sixth day load it up with the showers of jewels that would descend and then sail away. following the bikshu's advice, the two ministers--together with their treasures--became the founders of new cities called Hiruka and Bhirukaccha.
Relief 82. The shower of precious stones.
Not until the rain of sand began to fall did Mahakatyayana leave a city doomed to ruin. He was acccompanied by Cyamaka--the son of Hiru--and the godess of Roruka, who had asked to follow them. They flew through the air until the came to Khara. Here the godess was obliged to remain, because one of the citizens, in order to secure her beneficent presence for his town, had made her promise to take care of his stick and key till he returned. Then he had made away with himself so that the goddess would be unable to depart.
The saint Mahakatyayanat left behind as a remembrance his bowl over which a stupa was erected and a festival founded. Then he continued his flight with Cyamaka. Having noticed that when the young man sat under a tree the shadow of the tree never left him, they offered the young man the title of king because the residents were in need of a good monarch.
In the end, Mahakatyayana came to Vokkana alone. Here he presented his staff to his former mother, over which a stupa was eventually erected. After giving his shoes to the goddess of the North so that they could be honored in a stupa, he arrived at Travesty, where he related what had happened to the delight of the bhiksus in attendance.
No. 504. The Bhallatiya Jakata - 1st Gallery Balustrade, Upper Register 89-90
While dwelling at
the Jetavana grove, the Master told the following story about the
'Jessamine Bride' Mallika.
"0 great king,"
said the Master. "Long ago when you were a kinnari, you were kept apart
for a single night from your kinnara mate, an event which caused you to
mourn for seven hundred years."
Giving a glance
to his hounds, the king snapped his fingers. In recognition of this
sign, the thoroughbred dogs--who knew their work well-crept into the
underwood and then crouched down on their bellies so that they could
not easily be seen.
yon river flows between the rocks. A storm arose. Then with anxious
care to find me right across my loved one goes.
to the kinnara's replies, the king thought: "These creatures, who are
less than human, go weeping for seven hundred years just because of one
night's parting. meanwhile here am I, the Lord of a realm spanning
three hundred leagues. Leaving behind all my magnificence, I now wander
about this forest. What a great mistake I have made."
After having heard the Tathagata's admonition, the
Lady Mallika rose her couch, joined her hands together, made a reverent
obeisance, and then recited this last stanza:
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